The Criminalisation of Youth
Transformations to the criminal justice system in Western societies are often linked with broader social and cultural changes, and this work presents the recent changes in juvenile justice in Canada and nine European countries and the sociopolitical context in which they take place. The study provides a comparison of the sentencing practices of each country, focusing on three dimensions related to the sanction practices: the custodial sanctions, the alternative sanctions, and the extension of the judicial thinking into relative fields such as school, training, and social policies. With clear and thoroughly developed research methods, this analysis illustrates that changes in juvenile justice policies are not specifically the result of differences in crime rates or the evolution of deviant youth behavior, but rather the effect of complex interactions with a variety of social, economical, cultural, and political factors.
At fifteen, Victor Rios found himself a human target—flat on his ass amid a hail of shotgun fire, desperate for money and a place on the street. Faced with the choice of escalating a drug turf war or eking out a living elsewhere, he turned to a teacher, who mentored him and helped him find a job at an auto shop. That job would alter the course of his whole life—putting him on the road to college and eventually a PhD. Now, Rios is a rising star, hailed for his work studying the lives of African American and Latino youth. In Human Targets, Rios takes us to the streets of California, where we encounter young men who find themselves in much the same situation as fifteen-year-old Victor. We follow young gang members into schools, homes, community organizations, and detention facilities, watch them interact with police, grow up to become fathers, get jobs, get rap sheets—and in some cases get killed. What is it that sets apart young people like Rios who succeed and survive from the ones who don’t? Rios makes a powerful case that the traditional good kid/bad kid, street kid/decent kid dichotomy is much too simplistic, arguing instead that authorities and institutions help create these identities—and that they can play an instrumental role in providing young people with the resources for shifting between roles. In Rios’s account, to be a poor Latino youth is to be a human target—victimized and considered an enemy by others, viewed as a threat to law enforcement and schools, and burdened by stigma, disrepute, and punishment. That has to change. This is not another sensationalistic account of gang bangers. Instead, the book is a powerful look at how authority figures succeed—and fail—at seeing the multi-faceted identities of at-risk youths, youths who succeed—and fail—at demonstrating to the system that they are ready to change their lives. In our post-Ferguson era, Human Targets is essential reading.
Youth Crime and Justice
`Youth Crime and Justice presents a detailed and comprehensive critical analysis of evidence from leading national and international scholars. As such it provides a powerful antidote to the excesses of contemporary correctionalism' - Professor Andrew Rutherford, University of Southampton `Youth Crime and Justice is the most comprehensive and up-to-date collection on the market today. A must for all researchers, teachers and students of youth justice' - Professor Tim Newburn, London School of Economics and Political Science and President of the British Society of Criminology For the first time, leading national and international scholars have been brought together to engage explicitly with a comprehensive critical assessment of the relation between 'evidence' and contemporary youth justice policy formation. This book, along with its companion volume Comparative Youth Justice (edited by John Muncie and Barry Goldson) , will significantly advance the development of an emerging 'youth criminology'. The book is essential reading for criminology and criminal justice students, researchers and practitioners. Contributors' Affiliations: Tim Bateman is a Senior Policy Development Officer with Nacro, a UK-based crime reduction agency Chris Cunneen is Professor of Criminology and Director of the Institute of Criminology at the University of Sydney Matthew Follett is a Lecturer in Criminology at the University of Leicester Loraine Gelsthorpe is a Reader in Criminology and Criminal Justice at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge Barry Goldson is a Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Liverpool, England. Kevin Haines is Head of Applied Social Sciences at the University of Swansea Lynn Hancock is a Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Liverpool Harry Hendrick is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Southern Denmark Gordon Hughes is Professor of Criminology at the International Centre for Comparative Criminological Research at the Open University Fergus McNeill is a Senior Lecturer at the Glasgow School of Social Work, Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde Phil Mizen is a Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Warwick John Muncie is Professor of Criminology and Co-Director of the International Centre for Comparative Criminological Research at the Open University David O'Mahony is a Senior Lecturer in Youth Justice at the Institute of Criminology and Criminal Justice, School of Law, Queen's University Belfast Gilly Sharpe is a Doctoral Research Student at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge David Smith is Professor of Criminology at Lancaster University Roger Smith is a Lecturer in Social Work at the University of Leicester Colin Webster is a Senior Lecturer in Criminology at the University of Teesside Rob White is Professor of Sociology and Head of the School of Sociology and Social Work at the University of Tasmania
Devils and Angels
Youth Justice is a key area of the current governments criminal justice policy in England and Wales. It has been the subject of an inordinate amount of recent legislation seeking to enhance the criminal courts powers to punish and prevent offending and re-offending by young people. This legislation attempts to prevent offending through criminal justice measures and there is little attempt to use non-criminal or civil law procedures to achieve the same result. This book seeks to challenge that focus and to question why delinquency in young people has been so firmly criminalized in this jurisdiction. The book addresses the consequences of criminalization in terms of the effectiveness of the measures used as well as the implications for the social construction of youth and childhood and our attitudes towards the young. Criminalization of young peoples behaviour results in them being labeled as criminal,losing identity as an individual, losing their childhood through the process of taking adult responsibility for their actions and, in policy terms, becoming viewed as a crime problem rather than as a product of failing social policy regarding employment, education and youth culture. At a society level it is contended that the identification of young people with criminal activity and the negative public image that results creates a culture of fear and distrust which may in turn create further possibilities for criminalization of their behaviour. A comparative perspective in this work examines welfare-based responses to youth crime in other European jurisdictions and questions whether the criminal justice process is an appropriate context in which to deal with young peoples problematic behaviour.This book has been shortlisted for the 2007 SLSA Book Prize.
Responding to Youth Crime
This book presents a critique of the traditional responses to youth crime by criminal justice agencies in Australia, UK, New Zealand, USA, Canada, and a vision of how these agencies could respond more effectively. The critique examines the ways in which traditional criminal justice approaches trap young people into, rather than turn them away from, a life of crime. The vision is for criminal justice agencies - police, courts, and corrections - to become more pro-active partners in society's efforts to guide young people towards becoming happy and productive citizens; for these agencies to focus less on the exercise of retributive powers and to embrace restorative approaches; and for agencies to develop a crime prevention role through partnership with community organisations. Author Paul Omaji argues against concentrating resources on the symptom when the underlying causes are within our intellectual grasp and amenable to effective criminal justice responses. Omaji demonstrates the capacity of criminal justice agencies to become constructive partners with community organisations in preventing youth crime and constructs ground rules for high impact partnerships.
A Political Ecology of Youth and Crime
This book explores young people's 'nested' and 'political' ecological relationships with crime through an empirical investigation of the important 'places' and 'spaces' in young people's lives; in their social relationships with peers and family members; and within formal institutional systems such as education, youth justice and social care.
Youth Offending and Youth Justice
How is the modern world shaping young people and youth crime? What impact is this having on the latest policies and practice? Are current youth justice services working? With contributions from leading researchers in the field, this book offers an insightful, scholarly and critical analysis of such key issues. Youth Offending and Youth Justice engages constructively with current policy and practice debates, tackling issues such as the criminalisation and penalisation of youth, sentencer decision-making, the incarceration of young people and the role of public opinion. It also features an applied focus on professional practice. Drawing on a wide range of high-quality research, this book will enrich the work of practitioners, managers, policy-makers, students and academics in social work, youth work, criminal justice and youth justice in the UK and beyond.
Youth and Crime
This book provides you with the most comprehensive and authoritative overview of youth crime and youth justice available. Keeping you abreast of contemporary debates, this fourth edition of Youth and Crime : Includes updated chapters on youth crime discourse and data, youth victimology, youth and social policy, youth justice strategies and comparative and international youth justice, providing a critical analysis of issues such as institutional abuse, child poverty, cyberbullying, child trafficking, international children's rights and transnational policy transfer. Covers numerous issues raised by the UK coalition government’s law and order and austerity policies including ages of criminal responsibility, the ‘rehabilitation revolution’, ‘troubled families’, abolition of antisocial behaviour orders (ASBOs), initiatives in gangs, gun and knife crime, responses to the August 2011 riots, prospects for restorative justice and reductions in child imprisonment. Keeps you up to date with contemporary research into explanations of youth crime, youth and media, youth cultures, youth unemployment and training programmes, and youth justice policies and takes into account recent legislative reform. Features a new companion website, featuring links to journal articles, relevant websites, blogs and government reports. Complete with chapter outlines, summary boxes, key terms, study questions, further reading lists, web-based resources and a glossary, this is the textbook to take you through your studies in youth and crime.
At the dawn of the twenty-first century, panic about girls’ offending in Britain reached fever pitch. No longer sugar and spice, a ‘new breed’ of girl, the hedonistic, violent, binge-drinking ‘ladette’, was reported to have emerged. At the same time, the number of young women entering the youth justice system, including youth custody, increased dramatically. Offending Girls challenges simplistic and demonising popular representations of 'bad' girls and examines what exactly is new about the ‘new’ offending girl. In the light of enormous social and cultural changes affecting girls’ lives, and expectations of them, since previous British research in this area, the book investigates whether popular stereotypes problematising female youthful behaviour resonate with the accounts of criminalised young women themselves, and to what extent they have infiltrated professional youth justice discourse. Through the lens of original detailed qualitative research in two Youth Offending Teams and a Secure Training Centre – the first study of its kind since the 'modernisation' of the youth justice system over a decade ago – Offending Girls questions whether the ‘new’ youth justice system is delivering justice for girls and young women. It also contends that the panic about an ‘unprecedented crime wave’ amongst girls is not supported by robust evidence, but that the interventionist thrust which characterises contemporary youth justice has had a particularly pernicious impact on girls. It will be key reading for students and academics working in the areas of criminology, criminal and youth justice, education, gender studies, youth studies, social work, sociology and social policy, as well as youth and criminal justice practitioners and policy-makers.
This collection brings together opinion, commentary, research evidence, professional guidance, debate and critique in order to understand the phenomenon of anti-social behaviour.