M tamorphoses du travail
Ce que les post-modernes prennent pour la fin de la modernité et la crise de la raison, est en réalité la crise d'un " credo " irrationnel qu'une rationalisation sélective a soustrait à l'examen argumenté et à la critique : la croyance quasi religieuse que " plus vaut plus ", que toute activité -y compris la maternité, la culture, le loisir- est justiciable d'une évaluation économique et peut être régulée par l'argent. Le principal objet de cet essai est de déterminer les limites -existentielles, culturelles, ontologiques- que la rationalité économique ne peut franchir sans se renverser en son contraire et miner de non-sens pervers le contexte socio-culturel qui la porte. Il faut essayer de comprendre pourquoi la raison économique a pu imposer sa loi ; provoquer le divorce du travail et de la vie, de la production et des besoins, de l'économie et de la société. Pourquoi elle est en train de radicalement désintégrer celle-ci ; pourquoi nombre d'activités ne peuvent être transformées en travail rémunéré et en emploi sans être dénaturées dans leur sens par cette transformation. Cet essai tient donc à la fois de l'histoire et de la sociologie du travail, de la philosophie morale et existentielle, de la critique sociale et économique ; finalement et accessoirement de la tentative de redéfinir la vision directrice et les tâches essentielles d'une gauche qui ne rougirait pas de renouer avec sa vocation originelle : celle de remettre la raison économique à sa place subalterne, au service d'une société poursuivant l'émancipation et le libre épanouissement des personnes.
For a New Critique of Political Economy
The catastrophic economic, social and political crisis of our time calls for a new and original critique of political economy – a rethinking of Marx′s project in the very different conditions of twenty–first century capitalism. Stiegler argues that today the proletarian must be reconceptualized as the economic agent whose knowledge and memory are confiscated by machines. This new sense of the term proletarian′ is best understood by reference to Plato′s critique of exteriorized memory. By bringing together Plato and Marx, Stiegler can show how a generalized proletarianization now encompasses not only the muscular system, as Marx saw it, but also the nervous system of the so–called creative workers in the information industries. The proletarians of the former are deprived of their practical know–how, whereas the latter are shorn of their theoretical practice, and both suffer from a confiscation of the very possibility of a genuine art of living. But the mechanisms at work in this new and accentuated form of proletarianization are the very mechanisms that may spur a reversal of the process. Such a reversal would imply a crucial distinction between one′s life work, originating in otium (leisure devoted to the techniques of the self), and the job, consisting in a negotium (the negotiation and calculation, increasingly restricted to short–term expectations), leading to the necessity of a new conception of economic value. This short text offers an excellent introduction to Stiegler′s work while at the same time representing a political call to arms in the face of a deepening economic and social crisis.
André Gorz is widely regarded as a major contemporary theoretician and his comprehensive critique of social formations offers both a direction and meaning to the current technological revolution. In the first accessible introduction to his work in English, Lodziak and Tatman trace the development of Gorz's political and philosophical theory over a period of more than four decades. Gorz's influence on European intellectual and political culture is examined, as is Gorz's own formative influe
The Uncertain Digital Revolution
Digital information and communication technologies are seen as a threat to privacy, a step forward for freedom of expression and communication, a tool in the fight against terrorism or the source of a new economic wealth. This book revisits the major issues that have emerged with the progress of computerization by describing the context, finding the terms in which these issues were formulated and to mobilize the theoretical grids for a better understanding. It reflects on the various questions asked regarding the freedoms of individual. Between individualism and reinforced pervasive control, it allows a better understanding of the essential issues of the current "digital revolution".
The Power of Indignation
His brief pamphlet Indignez-vous! (Cry Out!) is an international bestseller, calling for a return to the values of his native France’s “greatest generation,” the resistance fighters of World War II. It has inspired citizens participating in the Arab Spring and Occupy Wall Street uprisings. Now Stéphane Hessel, one of France’s preeminent thinkers and activists, is back. With extraordinary insight, the ninety-four-year-old Hessel gives his intellectual autobiography. His thinking is nourished by the exchange he has maintained for years with his close friends, as well as prominent political and literary figures: Edgar Morin, Jean-Paul Dollé, Daniel Cohn-Bendit, Régis Debray, Peter Sloterdijk, Laure Adler, Michel Rocard, and Jean-Claude Carrière. This book is accessible and profound—it is for all those who seek, despite the contradictions and violence of our contemporary lives, to “regain our dignity as men and women while governed by a frenzy of selfish and irresponsible people.” This book is, for Stéphane Hessel, a way to encourage us to reflect on the past in order to take charge of our future destiny. At once a handbook for the revolutionary, a treatise on human rights, and an inside look at the relationships, thoughts, and recollections of one of the most important figures in France today, this is a not-to-be-missed book for 2012.
Gender Et Emploi Du Temps
This volume presents the findings of a year-long forum held at the European University Institute in 1994--which focused on the complex issues arising from the differences in time use between the sexes at the end of the twentieth century. It addresses critical questions such as: How far does gender play a vital role in determining how much time is spent in paid work in the market and how much in unpaid caring work in the home? As a consequence, who has rights to pensions and benefits? How much time can either sex devote to leisure or to political activities? Among the contributors to this study are distinguished demographers, sociologists and social policy experts, philosophers and jurists, each employing different approaches and drawing upon a wide variety of evidence. These include time budget analyses, employment and population data, interviews to discern the differing attitudes of fathers and mothers to time spent with their children, assessments of the premises on which welfare systems have been constructed, and analyses of the language and assumptions used in the directives of the European Commission. In addition, experiments involving parental leave and ideas and initiatives to redistribute working time, such as Citizens Income, are considered in order to further the debate on how social change may be achieved.
The Future of Career
A comprehensive analysis of career theory and practice, reviewing the past and considering the future.
Citizenship Environment Economy
This book examines the nature of environmental citizenship, and the obstacles and opportunities involved in trying to develop it in liberal capitalist economies.
Discovering Design reflects the growing recognition that the design of the everyday world deserves attention not only as a professional practice but as a subject of social, cultural, and philosophic investigation. Victor Margolin, cofounder and an editor of the journal Design Issues, and Richard Buchanan, also an editor of the journal, bring together eleven essays by scholars in fields ranging from psychology, sociology, and political theory to technology studies, rhetoric, and philosophy. The essayists share the editors' concern, first made clear in Margolin's Design Discourse: History, Theory, Criticism, with the the development of design studies as a field of interdisciplinary research. The contributors (Gianfranco Zaccai, Albert Borgmann, Richard Buchanan, Augusto Morello, Tufan Orel, Nigel Cross, Victor Margolin, Langdon Winner, Carl Mitcham, Tony Fry, and Ezio Manzini) focus on three broad themes that form a sequence of fundamental issues: how to shape design as a subject matter, how to distinguish the activity of designing in the complex world of action, and how to address the basic questions of value and responsibility that persistently arise in the discussion and practice of design. The editors' introduction provides a useful overview of these questions and offers a multidisciplinary framework for design studies. The essays discuss such topics as the relation of aesthetics to technology, the place of design in social action, the role of the consumer in design decisions, and the need for ethical practice in contemporary design. Manzini's concluding essay shows how the issue of ethics should connect responsible behavior to decisions made every day in the manufacture of objects.
The Politics of the Encounter
The Politics of the Encounter is a spirited interrogation of the city as a site of both theoretical inquiry and global social struggle. The city, writes Andy Merrifield, remains "important, virtually and materially, for progressive politics." And yet, he notes, more than forty years have passed since Henri Lefebvre advanced the powerful ideas that still undergird much of our thinking about urbanization and urban society. Merrifield rethinks the city in light of the vast changes to our planet since 1970, when Lefebvre's seminal Urban Revolution was first published. At the same time, he expands on Lefebvre's notion of "the right to the city," which was first conceived in the wake of the 1968 student uprising in Paris. We need to think less of cities as "entities with borders and clear demarcations between what's inside and what's outside" and emphasize instead the effects of "planetary urbanization," a concept of Lefebvre's that Merrifield makes relevant for the ways we now experience the urban. The city—from Tahrir Square to Occupy Wall Street—seems to be the critical zone in which a new social protest is unfolding, yet dissenters' aspirations are transcending the scale of the city physically and philosophically. Consequently, we must shift our perspective from "the right to the city" to "the politics of the encounter," says Merrifield. We must ask how revolutionary crowds form, where they draw their energies from, what kind of spaces they occur in—and what kind of new spaces they produce.