La bonne foi en droit international public
La question de la bonne foi repose sur des problèmes fondamentaux et permanents de chaque ordre juridique. Il faut distinguer ses diverses composantes. La bonne foi subjective a trait à l’ignorance d’un fait excusée par le droit. La bonne foi objective constitue un principe général de droit. Il vise surtout la protection de la confiance légitime. Il peut viser aussi la protection de certaines finalités communes contre les détournements motivés par une place excessive faite aux seuls intérêts particuliers (par exemple la théorie de l’interdiction de l’abus du droit). Le principe de bonne foi est donc une notion solidariste. Elle tempère le volontarisme qui règne traditionnellement en droit international en y introduisant les considérations objectives de sécurité, de stabilité et de justice. Le volontarisme ne considère que la sphère du sujet qui agit : l’obligation n’est censée naître que de sa volonté. La bonne foi vise à rééquilibrer ce rapport qui préside à la création, à la mise en œuvre, à la modification et à la terminaison de la règle. Elle commande de tenir compte des attentes légitimes et des finalités objectives d’un rapport considéré dans sa bilatéralité. C’est à travers tout le droit international, des sources au règlement des différends, que l’auteur conduit l’enquête pour montrer les incidences pratiques et les perspectives ouvertes par ce principe. Il fait preuve d’une maîtrise exceptionnelle de la littérature de théorie et de l’histoire du droit, ainsi que du droit international positif, dans les langues les plus diverses. En plus de la doctrine, la pratique internationale est analysée de manière fouillée et exhaustive. C’est bien une vision générale du droit international tout entier qui nous est offerte à travers l’un de ses principes fondamentaux.
Good Faith in the Jurisprudence of the WTO
What does the concept of good faith express? This book is the first to discuss what good faith means in international trade law. As a reference guide for scholars and practitioners it analyses the case law of WTO dispute settlement practice. The book describes how, why and when the concept of good faith links the WTO Agreements with other public international norms. The concept of good faith appears frequently in treaties and customary rules, but is most often considered a general principle of law. WTO law uses the corrolaries of pacta sunt servanda, the prohibition of abus de droit and the protection of legitimate expectation alongside the principle of good faith. An analysis of GATT 1947 and WTO case law reveals that the function of good faith varies. The Panel reports and the Appellate Body decisions make different use of it. The Appellate Body is prepared to apply the principle to WTO provisions only, while Panels use it more freely and substantively; that is, they apply good faith to fill lacunae in any of the WTO covered agreements. Also, adjudicators use the principle differently, depending on whether it relates to the agreements covered by the WTO or the procedural law of WTO dispute settlement. As it applies to the former, good faith is used to strike a balance between, on the one hand, the obligation to liberalise trade, and on the other hand, the right to invoke an exception to trade liberalisation for the protection of the environment, culture, public morals, human life or health. In this way, good faith safeguards the gains of multilateral trade liberalisation against unlawful interests such as disguised protectionism. The book also introduces the novel field of WTO procedural law governing trade dispute litigation. In the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), good faith appears in the standard of review, rules of evidence and fact-finding, standing, duty of prior consultation, right of establishment of a panel, ex officio investigations, withdrawal of notices of appeal, and the raising of objections. In all these areas it ensures that the rules of dispute resolution are not abused. The Appellate Body has even gone so far as to derive a new standard from the principle of good faith that demands that disputes are settled fairly, promptly and effectively. Insights into good faith in WTO law are not only important for trade law professionals. Current applications and future operations of the principle are likely to be of strategic value for answering the increasingly pressing question of how WTO law and other international agreements ought to be reconciled.
The Evolutionary Interpretation of Treaties
If an old treaty regulating 'commerce' or forbidding 'degrading treatment of persons' is to be interpreted decades after its conclusion, does 'commerce' or 'degrading treatment of persons' have the same meaning at the time of interpretation as they had when the treaty was concluded? The evolutionary interpretation of treaties has proven one of the most controversial topics in the practice of international law. Indeed, it has been seen as going against the very grain of the law of treaties, and has been argued to be contrary to the intention of the parties, breaching the principle of consent. This book asks what the place of evolutionary interpretation is within the understanding of treaties, at a time when many important international legal instruments are over five decades old. It sets out to place the evolutionary interpretation of treaties on a firm footing within the Vienna rules of interpretation, as codified in Articles 3133 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. The book demonstrates that the evolutionary interpretation of treatiesin common with all other types of interpretationis in fact based upon an objective understanding of the intention of the parties. In order to marry intention and evolution, the book argues that, on the one hand, evolutionary interpretation is the product of the correct application of Articles 3133 and, on the other, that Articles 3133 are geared towards the objective establishment of the intention of the parties. The evolutionary interpretation of treaties is therefore shown to represent an intended evolution.
General Principles of Law in the Decisions of International Criminal Courts and Tribunals
International lawyers usually disregard the vital functions that general principles of law may play in the decisions of international courts and tribunals. As far as international criminal law is concerned, general principles of law may be crucial to the outcome of an international trial, "inter alia" because the conviction of an accused in respect of a particular charge may depend on the existence of a given defence under this source. This volume examines the role that general principles of law have played in the decisions of international criminal courts and tribunals. In particular, it analyses their alleged a ~subsidiarya (TM) nature, their process of determination, and their transposition from national legal systems into international law. It concludes that general principles of law have played a significant role in the decisions of international criminal courts and tribunals, not only by filling legal gaps, but also by being a fundamental means for the interpretation of legal rules and the enhancement of legal reasoning.
Complicity and its Limits in the Law of International Responsibility
This book examines the responsibility of States and international organizations for complicity (aid or assistance) in an internationally wrongful act. Despite the recognition of responsibility for complicity as a rule of customary international law by the International Court of Justice, this book argues that the effectiveness and utility of this form of responsibility is fraught with systemic and operational limits. These limits include a lack of clarity in its constituent elements, its co-existence with primary rules prohibiting complicity and the obligations of due diligence, its implementation and the underlying causal tests, its uncertain relationship to other forms of shared and indirect responsibility, and its potential as a form of attribution of conduct. This book submits that the content and elements of this form of responsibility need adjustments to respond more effectively to the phenomenon of complicity in international affairs.
Latin America and the International Court of Justice
This book aims to evaluate the contribution of Latin America to the development of international law at the International Court of Justice (ICJ). This contemporary approach to international adjudication includes the historical contribution of the region to the development of international law through the emergence of international jurisdictions, as well as the procedural and material contribution of the cases submitted by or against Latin American states to the ICJ to the development of international law. The project then conceives international jurisdictions from a multifunctional perspective, which encompasses the Court as both an instrument of the parties and an organ of a value-based international community. This shows how Latin American states have become increasingly committed to the peaceful settlement of disputes and to the promotion of international law through adjudication. It culminates with an expansion of the traditional understanding of the function of the ICJ by Latin American states, including an analysis of existing challenges in the region. The book will be of interest to all those interested in international dispute resolution, including academic libraries, the judiciary, practitioners in international law, government institutions, academics, and students alike.
International Investment Law in Latin America Derecho Internacional de las Inversiones en Am rica Latina
International Investment Law in Latin America: Problems and Prospects analyses the trend from enthusiasm to diffidence Latin American countries have recently undergone towards investment law. Experts draw lessons from the Continent’s past experiences while identifying possible solutions to the important challenges it faces. En Derecho Internacional de las Inversiones en América Latina: Problemas y Perspectivas, la tendencia desde el entusiasmo a la desconfianza de los países latinoamericanos hacia esta rama del derecho es analizada, en búsqueda de posibles soluciones a los importantes desafíos que actualmente enfrenta esa región.
Considers multilateralism and other approaches to international cooperation, identifying further areas for research into the issues of international relations.
Predictability and Flexibility in the Law of Maritime Delimitation
The principal aim of this book is the quest for a well-balanced legal system that reconciles predictability and flexibility in the law of maritime delimitation. As with all types of law, the law of maritime delimitation should possess a degree of predictability. On the other hand, as maritime delimitation cases differ, flexible considerations of geographical and non-geographical factors is also required in order to achieve equitable results. How, then, is it possible to ensure predictability while taking into account a diversity of factors in order to achieve an equitable result? This, according to the author, is the question at the heart of the law of maritime delimitation. The book addresses this issue in depth by looking at three aspects of the question: first by looking at the two opposing and contrasting approaches evident in the evolution of the law of maritime delimitation; second, by undertaking a comparative study of the case law and State practice; and third, by examining the theoretical problems underlying the law of maritime delimitation.
United Nations Juridical Yearbook 2000
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